The main goal of this article is to teach and contribute:
Better understanding between man and horse
Better training for horses and riders
Proper treatment to horses
A higher knowledge level of managers and horse trainers
A higher level of safety in training
This is not just theoretical material for educating managers and trainers, but also as additional help and support for trainers that work with beginners in riding schools, as well as current and future competitors.
The goal of this education is theoretical and practical knowledge and straightening the teaching abilities of the horse riding trainers. After the successfully passed theoretical and practical exam, the participants receive a certificate of the level they have achieved, manager or horse trainer. Then when these complete the whole course, they will be qualified to lead the training of new beginners in the riding school and prepare other students for the exams that follow for competitive licensing (license) for horse jumping and endurance riding. After completing the course trainers of various disciplines are qualified to train riders of all ages, up to the highest category of the competition.
The welfare of the horse comes first in all disciplines of equestrian sports no matter what.
The welfare of the horse must be above all other requests of all interested parties and commercial interests.
Every activity and veterinary care must provide health and welfare of the horse.
The highest standards of nutrition, health care, treatment and safety of the horse should be encouraged during all the equestrian sports.
During transportation it should provide appropriate ventilation trailers, feeding and watering horses and maintaining healthy environment.
Good preparation and riding skills are essential for the welfare of the horse.
The horse is a living being and all techniques that are considered to be violent should not be used during the training methods and the riding techniques.
National associations must organize controls in order to verify the compliance of all persons under their jurisdiction.
National and international rules and regulations in equestrian sports, which are about the health and welfare of the horse, must be explicitly appreciated, not only during national and international tournaments, but also during training.
It is very important to know the following facts in order to keep the risk of this sport to the minimum:
Training riders and horses consistently.
Stretching (exercises to relax the muscles).
Avoiding substances that can reduce the reaction skills (alcohol, slipping pills, tranquilizers).
Video games are now one of the most popular forms of entertainment, and a very important economic factor in many countries, because of their economic impact is constantly growing from the 1990s till today. With the improving technology and connectivity devices, it has become possible for a small team of people to develop successful video game.
It has been proved that the creation of video games is one of the most demanding software products. It is necessary to imagine a game, write a script of the story, define the rules, draw pictures and graphics, create models, make sounds and much more. According to this, for making video games it is necessary to create a team of a writer, painter, musician, game designer and programmer. Fortunately, there are different types and sizes of games, so they can develop and play without some of these aspects, and still be fun. This work will be given to major games, but still simple enough that it can be achieved within the drafting work. However, they will not use 3D models, yet only the 2D graphic images.
In this post we will describe the process of making video games from an early stage to its implementation and testing. We will also compare the process of making video games with the development of business applications and notice some important differences. We will describe the business plan and the distribution method at the end of the game. And lets not forget to play virtual pony games.
Video games are a type of games that are played using a computer. Computers can be desktops, game consoles (connected to the TV or portable) and mobile devices. While video games are made by the ancient 1950s, they in fact became popular in the 1990s along the development of the graphical capabilities of your computer.
Video Games Genres
There are various genres of video games, but in this post we will only talk about role-playing games (RPG). These are video games where the player takes the role of a fictional or historical character. This genre is recognizable by the long stories and character development, using the new skills that are obtained by collecting experience (usually in some form of fighting) and advancing through the levels. Because of the appeal of having the progress and improvement of skills, this aspect has spread to almost all other genres of video games. So today we have not only battle games, but sports games too, where the player progresses in, for example, football or race cars and improves its features. This is often used as a technique for keeping the game interesting over time in the form of limiting the possibilities for some moments (for an instance you cannot use a weapon till a certain level) or by setting clearer goals (eg. some tasks require progression in order to be solved). Additional recognition is the length of the game, which is the shortest RPGs about 20 hours (typically 30-40 hours), unlike other genres that last about 5-10 hours.
There are two types of RPGs:
• Western type (Western role-playing game, WRPG) and
• Japanese type (Japanese role-playing game, JRPG).
The difference is in the type of the battle, freedom of the movement and exploration of the environment. In JRPG the characters are generally static and fight using moves and the environment is limited, while in WRPG the battle is more dynamic and there is greater interaction with the environment, with emphasis on its exploration and free movement.
Types of video games in relation to publisher
At the beginning, video games have worked exclusively via the publisher or the client, because the knowledge of making video games was limited to experts. With the advent of new technologies, around 2005, making video games was significantly simplified. It turned out that small teams, in some cases, only one person can make a quality video game. Through standards that have appeared in the web and mobile technologies, a good system has developed for the digital distribution of applications and video games. All this has contributed to the division of types of video games in relation to the publisher. These are:
• AAA video games and
• Independent video games (Indie video games).
AAA video games have a large publisher and are developed by lot of experts, and for the development itself spent a considerable sum of money. Independent video games are developed by a small team of people, have no publisher and they use already existing channels of digital distribution on development platforms. However, the biggest difference is in the quality. It would be expected, as this quality is a priority in AAA video games due to high production, but in short it was shown that the quality depends of the gameplay. AAA video games, mainly because of the large sums of money invested in the development, develop Safe games. They do not change too much the mechanisms of play, or try to add some drastic options. Independent games are however constantly trying to develop something new and often dramatically changing mechanisms or artistic look of the game, because they try to be noticed in the crowd. Today it is considered as the most original games just independently developed games, while AAA games are just different and more expensive editions of the games that we have already seen in some other form. Various elements of successful independent games, later slowly come to life in the AAA games, so you can say that it acts a kind of symbiosis of these types of games, where the independent games try out new opportunities which later are included in the AAA games.
Equine nutrition is not only the most important section in the overall expenses in the breeding process in horses, but the success of the breeder also depends on the food he gives to the horse. This is especially expressed at horses that are bred for achieving high goals. The expenses for this food are much higher, as well in relative and in absolute exports, than in other livestock. However, we can say that equine nutrition which is relatively expensive can be poor, or unbalanced food is even more expensive, because it doesn’t lead to the wanted results.
Breeding horses is based on plant nutrients which these animals, just as the other ruminants, use successfully. Digesting that kind of food, which is in big part inadequate, will place this animal out of the competitive relationship with humans. Thus we get useful job from horses, as well as many products which are essential for humans (meat, bones, livestock manure etc). During the development of the human civilization, the horse had a very important role. Till recently it presented an irreplaceable bond for humans in all segments of life. The products that were obtained by horses had a big role in everyday life. Due to the development of effective mechanization, during the last few decades, the importance of the horse is way smaller than it used to be. That is exactly why the total horse population has significantly decreased. This on the other hand led to changes in the horse’s structure and the goal why they were bred for. Instead for work today horses are mostly used for recreation and as sport horses. Despite all this, horse is still irreplaceable at some terrains and locations.
Recently there was a significant improvement in the area of equine nutrition science. Till recently there were huge procedures for assessment of the nutritive values and norms especially intended for horses. Generally norms were expressed by analogy with cattle. During the last 20 years there are created specific systems for evaluation and norms for the needs of the horses, which indicates the difference between the horses and the ruminants. These systems allow assembling a meal that will be correct and balanced for certain horse breed.
Will the horse achieve its maximum potential depends on the correct nutrition. This includes reproduction, physical development, as well as the ability to perform the work. If the horse doesn’t get a correct meal it will negatively affect its performances. Insufficiently fed horse will consume body reserves and will weaken. On the other hand, if the horse is fed too much, it will increase its body weight, harder works and becomes sluggish.
When fed must be borne in mind that horses are very individual in terms of their needs in nutrients, so all of the above mentioned systems can be considered as basic guidelines for the meal preparation. In practice, each horse deviates more of less from the standards, so a good breeder must take that into account. Horses are very sensitive to changes of certain nutrients in the diet, which can go so far to a point when the horse reacts on same food, which is reared on different location and different conditions.
Proper diet of horses, as with all other domestic animals, means meeting all needs in nutrient substances. Well balanced meal means not only providing certain amount of nutrients, but also a corresponding relationship between them. This ensures that the animal maximize nutrients which it has consumed. In order to achieve this must be taken into account all the specifics of the horse as the breed, and in particular their digestive organs. The efficiency of the nutrients depends on many other factors, such as the breed, conformation and training.
The basics for proper meal for horses must consist the following:
The meal must be sufficient with dry matter and energy.
In the frames of the overall nutritional value of the meal there should be enough proteins according to the horse breed and category it belongs.
The proteins in the meal have to be in accordance with the amino acids, of which we should especially make an accent on the lysine.
In the meal should be present enough mineral substance, especially Ca, P, Na and Cl as well as all the others.
The meal should have enough vitamins.
The meal should be full of flavor, in order to be consumed completely.
The meal should be varied, containing multiple nutrients (at least 3).
The meal should be as simple as possible to serve.
The meal must not contain any harmful or toxic substances.
Within the limits set by the said conditions, the price for the meal should be the lowest possible.
The quality of the nutrients they eat is very important at horses, perhaps more than in other domestic animals. They are particularly vulnerable to bad and spoiled food. The consequences of that food sometimes can be very serious and sometimes even fatal for the animal. Partially spoiled or contaminated food, which ruminants could consume, must not be given to horses. The necessity for providing good and quality food for the horses makes it even more expensive, but the end justifies the means, knowing the value the animal and the result it achieves. Finally, people that are nowadays breeding horses are definitely doing it out of love for this truly remarkable breed of domestic animal, so it is not hard to provide the best food for their companions.
Oh, and horses can be best friends with your other pets too you know and this video is a proof.
Just found this awesome website that offers you the best of the best free online games?! Yea! Congratulations for your huge achievement. Now, before you explore the whole new world of fun horse games, we recommend to try these five horse and pony games. The first game is one of our favorite.
Pony and Fruits is a cool animal online hobby for kids as well as horse admirers. Yummy fruits can be found in several locations within the game, hence run and check each of them. However, you have to keep an eye out not to slip so you can stay away from the branches. Your ultimate goal is to get just as much as it’s possible to of any amazing fresh fruits. Genuinely you have to get up to it is pointed out in the bottom left part of your computer screen. Left and right arrow keys are to move to the left and right, whilst up arrow is always to hop. Press left arrow key to go to the left, right arrow to go on the right and up arrow key to help you hop. It is not so easy to jump above the obstacles on the surface, however if you simply use up arrow key often, not just that you’ll get all over them, however, you can also easily grab those fruits. Keep an eye on the Health bar in the bottom of your computer screen, mainly because when you aren’t getting that fresh fruit your overall health will also decrease for a piece. Try to collect the Red Crosses dropping out of the air then fix the damage. Believe it and it can happen. There are even 9 incredible levels in this game, so do it now!
The second game is with our darling horse hero. Izzy Boxes differs from Pony and Fruits, not in the excitement, but in the slight relaxing course. Here you will also have to have certain skills, but more thinking is allowed.
A great journey but you have to help horse Izzy achieve the actual task. Apples and also carrots usually are horse’s most popular food, so they could be to our very own Izzy as well. Use all of the apples and carrots and then make your horse satisfied. Look for all the apples, carrots together with the horseshoes to complete every stage hence open the following. A hammer can help you quite a lot in your journey, so you’re able to ruin all of the unexpected bricks. Think of which brick must you crack first, because you will finish up infamously. Use arrow keys to go on to your left, right, climb up and down on ladders. But unfortunately, you possibly can make troubles, just press R key or maybe simply click Retry. Izzy Boxes is a horse adventure that each of the girls and boys, big and small are trying to find, it means that you have to be among them. You will definitely stay alert playing the very best physic puzzle based online game, hence try not to lose your belief and finish the 29 stages.
Now it will be time for the biggest challenge of them all. Detective Horse is calling you resolve a huge problem in Horseland and bring back their peace. Staying at Horseland has been an incredible experience.
Ever since the gold horseshoes faded things never remained the same. Virtually One hundred vanished and no one learned where could be. Can that be? Begin the contest to see yourself. Horse investigator Iggy would be the one who will find out. Because of this exploration he found the deserted factory. And there your horse located those wolves. Who precisely took those horseshoes? Have they get the thing that would mean a world to the Horseland’s villagers? This really is payback time and just private investigator Iggy can help them. Guide the horse finish all of the twelve levels at the facility and complete the task. Pick up the horseshoes and try to escape from the wolves. Seems easy to do, isn’t it? Then again let’s always be clear: Being an investigator is not easy at all! You cannot imagine what exactly is coming up, however, you can for sure believe it. Work with the right and left arrow keys to go to the left and right; up arrow key is to be able to climb up the steps; so down arrow key to climb downwards. Create the wood containers traps by using you tremendous gun. A key board key is in order to fire to the left and S key is to help shoot on the right. As a result your box of woods will become a new cage. Catch the wolf and try to get far away from him as soon as possible. And then the wolf can come outside once again, yet note that just one wolf will be trapped in a single crate at once. On the other hand, you’ve got to be smart because you can also get held in your very own trap. Therefore, in case you tumble in your trap you won’t get out of here. Once it shuts, you’re going to stay caught and the gaming is finished. Reach time additional bonuses on-time in order to freeze all of the wolves for around 10 secs and use the power to move by all of them without getting hurt. Get all of the 8 horseshoes in the level and so you can discover the way out, climbing up the gold stairs.
Detective Horse is a game for all kids, big and small. So is My Little Pony! Play all kinds of skilled games and enjoy equally in each one of them.
My Little Pony, a great puzzle game on the market get ready to enjoy the game play along with easy online game controls as well as dazzling colors. My Little Pony is an outstanding game especially produced for virtually all little kids, boys and girls. There is no place like the magical place of My Little Pony buddies. There is no other feeling that friendship can give you. Play My Little Pony simply by while using mouse and displacing the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle. Click and hold a piece of the puzzle using your computer mouse button and then drag that piece right into a placement that you consider is proper. All pieces will ultimately assemble and with little efforts you will uncover the final image of the most adorable My Little Pony buddy. It may be a bit tough at the beginning, but as you play My Little Pony again and again, you’ll become a true professional. This is your chance to spend some fun time along with your best friend, think positively and have a blast.
And the final choice of our top five goes to Romantic Pursuit, a true love free online game story with a soft touch of energy.
The greatest equine game on the internet is well-known as Romantic Pursuit. It is really a unique experience with the impressive horse. What a gorgeous, yet gloomy legend is the main character. He’s flying with the wings, seeking his own soul mate. He was deeply in love with a nice tiny princess, but she will never feel the same for him, as he is farmhand. He can die for her, yet she would not do the exact same. There is always one way to prove how much he likes the princess, therefore he began an adventure to find her. He is staying in a bizarre planet, therefore he must race above the hills, travel above openings and fight creepy creatures. There’s absolutely no going back, therefore you simply need to hit Z key, to be able to fly over the holes and keep on running, and also hit X key if you see the evil creature, to eliminate it.
A significant wave in the video gaming came about 3 decades ago, with the development of the initial Tetris video game. Tetris is recognized as by far the most popular video games available, entertaining millions of people. Today Free Tetris is played all over the world posting the top and the hottest Tetris games on the market.
The Soviet computer engineer called Alexey Pajitnov made the game that changed many lives, giving them fun for many time through the day. It is known that the coworkers needed to play Tetris hiding themselves of their company employers, since it disturb them in the work. Even though Tetris had a debatable background the game had a large number of lovers. This game was formerly produced in Elektronika 60, but later it has been imported to IMB PC. The past years of the Eighties Nintendo provides the control over the video game rights.
Over a decade latter Pajitnov began feel the success for the work creating this video game, by getting the initial big royalties. Experiencing and enjoying the game of Tetris has been the major quest for Alexey Pajitnov. In the meantime, this great game maker got a concept to make few more games.
Just as all else about Tetris the theme melody is a Soviet folk melody, that on the other hand was founded throughout the 1800s, symbolizing a loving story about a peddler and a beautiful lady.
Regardless how hard you try, you can never achieve this Tetris game, not even should you win 999.999 points.
The term Tetris was developed via 2 words. The 1st term is literally tetra that features an Ancient Greek foundation and would mean 4 while the second expression is going to be tennis, via the developer’s ideal hobby.
Playing Tetris is actually great for mental performance, even if you play a lot and also have a Tetris Syndrome or Tetris Outcome, that’s based on actively playing a long time the match. You could try stacking boxes of all types when you see them in the store, however don’t worry because studies have shown that Tetris improves human brain effectiveness and develops a thicker cortex. And let’s not forget the time that we’ll spend on consuming snacks as well as other addictions if we are not actively playing Tetris.
Tetris had been competed on a 437 feet skyscraper, but also with an electronic microscope, as the tiniest version ever before. Just how exciting is that? Think of Tetris like artwork.
You can find a functioning form of the game in a museum in New York that dates from 1984. However, if you wanna play a free online Tetris game home alone, just visit freetetris.biz and there you go- mission complete!
Are you worried on how to protect your horses and pony during the harsh winter months? A large number of stables are equipped with heating sources for maintaining the warmth of the animal. However this is found to be a costlier process as large amount of heat vanishes in the surrounding areas rapidly. You must be concerned about the fact that how your horses and pony must be surviving? You should understand that horses in the same way as different mammal shows reaction to the environments. They are provided with a coat which acts in response to the temperature outside by thickening during winter months and moulting in summer time. Horses in good physical shape have the capacity to thicken their coat with the approach of winter.
Hence you need to make sure that you provide proper nourishment to your animal and make them exercise in timely fashion for ensuring their good health. A horse with healthy body is sure to get a thick coat which will keep him warm and comfy in the winter season. You can also resort to making purchase of horse blanket. These ani8mlas tend to require blanket in the night time. This is because temperature steeply drops during this hour and horses are found to be inactively residing in the stable. They might catch cold if proper arrangements are not being done. You get lots of benefits from stable blanket in such situations.
A stable blanket is made in the form of a weighty blanket which gives heat to the animal. The material that is used in the making of these blankets is typically coarse fabric which is considered to be a first-class insulator of heat. The blanket tends to provide covering to the back of the horse. It gets to the crest of the animal and end below hock as well as knee. These blankets are able to retain the body temperature of horses and pony. The neck cover is also regarded as a valuable horse blanket. You can see the neck as the most uncovered part of horses. The neck possesses only a little hair covering and hence can easily catch cold. A neck cover provides protection to the region which extends up to the ears to the shoulder.
The usage of neck cover is made along with other blanket. You can also avail other high-quality blankets as anti sweat blankets as well as exercise rugs for your animal. These blankets provide utility in times when horse is busy running during chilly days. The horse is able to hold on to heat by application of such blankets. Moreover it also permits the warming up of muscles with absolutely no pulling or strains. The manufacturing of the blankets is done by using light fabric which permits circulation of air in all area of blanket and also allows retention of heat too. You are exposed to a wide selection of blankets for keeping your horse healthy in freezing days. You are the best person to make the right choice of most appropriate blanket by understanding the demands of your animal.
Pony is not a smaller version of a horse. It has a typical conformation and temperament. There are various breeds of ponies. They have thicker mane and tails and an overall coat. Their legs are shorter proportionately, bones are heavier, wider barrels, heads are shorter and their necks are thicker as compared to horses. Sometimes people who are not very familiar with horses might think an adult pony to be a foal, which is a young horse that has not yet reached maturity.
Ponies are intelligent breeds. They are regarded as friendly creatures. At times though they can be stubborn and devious. The behavior of ponies depends on the quality of the training that they receive. If they are trained by experienced trainers then they usually do not have any bad habits. Well trained ponies can be excellent mounts for children learning to ride horses. The larger ponies can be ridden by the older lot as ponies are generally stronger than their size.
The wild horse prototype is the source from where the pony originated. These developed small stature owing to living on the margins of horse habitat which was livable. These smaller breeds were domesticated and used for various errands all over the Northern hemisphere. Ponies were used earlier for driving and freight transportation purposes.
Ponies are visible in several equestrian pursuits. Certain breeds like the Hackney pony is used for driving while breeds like Connemara ponies and Australian pony are used mainly for riding. Welsh ponies are used for riding as well as driving. Ponies can compete at events ranging from hunters English riding on the flat, western riding classes at the horse shows to various other competitive events like gymkhana and driving of a combined nature. They can also do trail riding. They can participate in international competition events like equitation, dressage. Sometimes top ponies can compete with full sized horses and win the show. There is no correlation between the horse’s size and its athletic ability.
Pony Clubs are for young people who are owners of ponies or horses. They are located all over the world to teach young people facts about horses and they also sponsor competitive events for smaller horses and the younger generation. In several parts of the world, the ponies are used as working animals- as pack animals and also for pulling vehicles drawn by horses. They are often seen at traveling carnivals or at the private parties hosted by the parents of small children. Small children love to take short rides on ponies which are saddled. Ponies are present in the children’s summer camps. Pony breeds are widespread all over the world especially in the cold and severe climatic conditions. Here sturdy working animals are a primary requisite. Ponies can sustain themselves on a diet lesser than horses of a regular size. Ponies can be placed in three groups – small, medium and large.
The smallest equines are referred to as miniature horses. These are tinier than small ponies. At times full sized horses are called ponies affectionately by their masters. The horses used in the game of polo are called “polo ponies”, though they are full sized horses.
Horse Stable Kissing is an adventure game. You have to click the mouse and make the boy and the girl kiss, and hold the kiss when the boss is snoozing. Kissing is not permissible in the job so you have to do it stealthily. If the boss gets up you are done with. The longer the duration of the kiss, the more points you score. You can earn up to 1000 points in 200 seconds to beat the game. The music is refreshing and nice to the ears. Fun game, liked by all.
Prince Alfred sat on one corner of the paradise like garden and watched the children play. He was no longer a little boy – he was now an adolescent and very soon his father, King Edward, was to pass on the empire to him. He was both happy and nervous.
“Soon my days of youth will pass into days of maturity, and responsibilities will increase three folds!”, he thought to himself. As he remembered his days in the forest, when he went riding on the back of his favorite horse, Bo – Alfred’s eyes filled with tears. He closed his eyes for a moment and relived those moments when Bo, the chestnut stallion would leap over yards of flowing golden grass, over lakes and sheds and how Alfred would hold on to the leather strap – a proud rider of the stallion. Those days when Bo would violently rush from the forests to the backyard of the palace only to le Alfred know that it was daybreak and hence the best time to ride up to the hills to catch a glimpse of the rising sun – how Alfred would leap out of his bed – and how the fresh morning zephyr laden with the smell of grapes and flowers would greet him – the fabulous days with Bo were no longer there.
Weeks ago, it was announced in the village that Alfred was soon to be crowned the king and the new King would have his own horse to ride – his special pet. Ever since, the many stable owners had begun preparing their highbred horses to fit the King’s desire and be the chosen one. Among this entire jiffy, one forest chestnut stallion, Bo was lost. He ventured deep into the forest never to return. This caused Alfred immense pain. The sudden separation from a friend, a companion, a faithful one! Alfred’s life was about to change – on one hand was the happiness of being able to serve his country men, and on the other hand was the sudden detachment from his life at the forest.
For one last time, Alfred thought he would try to find out where Bo was – he wanted to see his dear stallion once before everything changed. The soldiers were sent out, but they came back with no answers.
“Oh Bo! Where are you? I so long to see you my friend!”, Alfred sighed.
Just then, Alfred heard a loud neigh outside the window of his huge room. He leaned outside, but could see nothing. Saddened, Alfred decided to go off to sleep and dream of his days with the magnanimous beast one last time. The very next morning was Alfred’s coronation – and he had heard murmurs around the village that the selection for the new King’s horse had been made already. Alfred’s eyes filled with tears, as he remembered his days, when he had wanted Bo to be the special pet.
Alfred was dressed in velvety gowns and there on his head, stood firm – the crown. Now he was King Alfred. The moment arrived when the King was summoned to the stables to ride his horse for the very first time. From a distance, Alfred could see a horse covered in all jewels and the best leather saddle ever. Then when he moved his eyes around it, Alfred noticed that this was a chestnut horse. His heart felt a sudden pang. As he moved closer, Alfred could hear heart beats that he was very familiar with. Suddenly the horse raised its face and when it saw Alfred, it stood on it hind hooves and neighed joyously.
Alfred couldn’t hold himself back and immediately hugged Bo. “Oh Bo ! Where were you! Where were you!”
He climbed up the saddle and pulled Bo’s strap, indicating him to once again take Alfred among the valleys, the lakes and leap over the fences like they always had.
“King Alfred! King Alfred..!”, the minister tried to call.
“Stop me not sir! The King is off take a ride of the world!”, Alfred said laughing out with joy, as he rode away into the forests.
Right from the early ages when human kind was busy taking his tottering footsteps through the winding roads of evolution, horses were domesticated for various purposes like transportation and carrying goods. Nowadays with horse racing catching the fantasy of millions across the world they have become a useful resource of earning money as well. Status symbols for the rich and famous, horses are also used by the police and some sections of the army even today in many countries.
The horse (Equus caballus) is a hoofed mammal, belonging to the family Equidae. As per historical evidences the domestication of horses started way back during the 3000B.C. and has continued ever since. Back then horses were used in warfare and a wide variety of riding techniques were developed, using various styles of equipment and methods of control.
An extensive and specialized vocabulary is used to describe the horse related concepts, including everything from anatomy to size, color, markings, locomotion, behavior, breeds and life stages
Horses and their well-developed sense of balance coupled with a strong fight-or-flight instinct enables them to make use of a great speed to escape predators. It is also noteworthy that horses are capable of sleeping both when they are standing up or lying down. Female horses known as mares have a gestation period of approximately 11 months, and the new born young horse, called the foal, can stand and even run shortly following birth.
The training of a domesticated horse ideally should begin by the age of two to four under saddle or in harness because they usually reach the full adult development stage by age five. The average lifespan of a horse is approximately 25 and 30 years.
Horse breeds are loosely divided into three broad categories based on their general temperament.
• Spirited ‘hot bloods’ with high speed and endurance.
• ‘Cold bloods’ which are the draft horses and some ponies. They are mostly used for slow, heavy work
• ‘Warm bloods’ developed by genetic engineering between hot bloods and cold bloods. These breeds were developed with the main focus on specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe.
With the advent of science and genetic modifications there are over 300 different breeds of horses in the world today each with distinct characteristic features, developed for various different uses.
Horses and humans interact widely in a variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits. They have found their place and importance in various working activities such as police work, entertainment, agriculture and therapy.
Many products including meat, milk, hide, hair and bone are derived from horses.
Nowadays even pharmaceuticals are being extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. The human horse relation is very well developed with them providing the domesticated horses with food, water and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians.
Most of the horses today are domesticated but there are still the endangered populations of the Przewalski’s Horse which is correctly referred to as the only remaining true wild horse. There are other non domesticated horses as well. These include the common feral horses which live in the wild but are descended from domesticated ancestors.